• Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs)

    What are work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs)?

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are a group of painful disorders of muscles, tendons, and nerves. Carpal tunnel syndrome, tendonitis, thoracic outlet syndrome, and tension neck syndrome are examples.

    For the purpose of developing injury prevention strategies, many health and safety agencies include only disorders that develop gradually and are caused by the overuse of the above constituents of the musculoskeletal system. The traumatic injuries of the muscles, tendons and nerves due to accidents are not considered to be WMSDs or are considered separately. However, there are organisations, such as the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, that include acute traumas and fractures within in the WMSD group.

    Almost all work requires the use of the arms and hands. Therefore, most WMSD affect the hands, wrists, elbows, neck, and shoulders. Work using the legs can lead to WMSD of the legs, hips, ankles, and feet. Some back problems also result from repetitive activities.

    SpineAre there other names for WMSDs?

    WMSDs are very difficult to define within traditional disease classifications. These disorders have received many names, such as:

    • Repetitive motion injuries.
    • Repetitive strain injuries.
    • Cumulative trauma disorders.
    • Occupational cervicobrachial disorders.
    • Overuse syndrome.
    • Regional musculoskeletal disorders.
    • Soft tissue disorders.

    Most of the names do not accurately describe the disorders. For example, the term “repetitive strain injuries” suggests that repetition causes these disorders, but awkward postures also contribute. These terms are used synonymously. In the absence of an agreement, WMSD term is used in this post.

    WMSDs arise from arm and hand movements such as bending, straightening, gripping, holding, twisting, clenching and reaching. These common movements are not particularly harmful in the ordinary activities of daily life. What makes them hazardous in work situations is the continual repetition, often in a forceful manner, and most of all, the speed of the movements and the lack of time for recovery between them. WMSDs are associated with work patterns that include:

    • Fixed or constrained body positions.
    • Continual repetition of movements.
    • Force concentrated on small parts of the body, such as the hand or wrist.
    • A pace of work that does not allow sufficient recovery between movements.

    Generally, none of these factors acts separately to cause WMSD. WMSDs commonly occur as a result of a combination and interaction among them.

    Heat, cold and vibration also contribute to the development of WMSD.

    How do WMSDs occur?

    This post discusses WMSDs that develop gradually as a result of repeated trauma.

    WMSDs include three types of injuries:

    • Muscle injury
    • Tendon injury
    • Nerve injury

    Muscle Injury

    When muscles contract, they use chemical energy from sugars and produce by-products such as lactic acid which are removed by the blood. A muscle contraction that lasts a long time reduces the blood flow. Consequently, the substances produced by the muscles are not removed fast enough, and they accumulate in the muscles. The accumulation of these substances irritates muscles and causes pain. The severity of the pain depends on the duration of the muscle contractions and the amount of time between activities for the muscles to get rid of those irritating substances.

    Tendon Injury

    Tendons consist of numerous bundles of fibres that attach muscles to bones. Tendon disorders related to repetitive or frequent work activities and awkward postures occur in two major categories –tendons with sheaths, found mainly in the hand and wrist; and tendons without sheaths, generally found around the shoulder, elbow, and forearm.

    The tendons of the hand are encased in sheaths through which the tendon slides.

    The inner walls of the sheaths contain cells that produce a slippery fluid to lubricate the tendon. With repetitive or excessive movement of the hand, the lubrication system may malfunction. It may not produce enough fluid, or it may produce a fluid with poor lubricating qualities. Failure of the lubricating system creates friction between the tendon and its sheath, causing inflammation and swelling of the tendon area. Repeated episodes of inflammation cause fibrous tissue to form. The fibrous tissue thickens the tendon sheath, and hinders tendon movement. Inflammation of the tendon sheath is known as tenosynovitis.

    When inflamed, a tendon sheath may swell up with lubricating fluid and cause a bump under the skin. This is referred to as a ganglion cyst.

    Tendons without sheaths are vulnerable to repetitive motions and awkward postures. In fact, when a tendon is repeatedly tensed, some of its fibres can tear apart. The tendon becomes thickened and bumpy, causing inflammation. Tendonitis is the general term indicating inflammation of the tendon. In some cases, such as in the shoulder, tendons pass through a narrow space between bones. A sac called the bursa filled with lubricating fluid is inserted between the tendons and the bones as an anti-friction device. As the tendons become increasingly thickened and bumpy, the bursa is subject to a lot of friction and becomes inflamed. Inflammation of the bursa is known as bursitis.

    Nerve Injury

    Nerves carry signals from the brain to control activities of muscles. They also carry information about temperature, pain and touch from the body to the brain, and control bodily functions such as sweating and salivation. Nerves are surrounded by muscles, tendons, and ligaments. With repetitive motions and awkward postures, the tissues surrounding nerves become swollen, and squeeze or compress nerves.

    How can we prevent WMSDs?

    Hazards are best eliminated at the source; this is a fundamental principle of occupational health and safety. In the case of WMSDs, the prime source of hazard is the repetitiveness of work. Other components of work such as the applied force, fixed body positions, and the pace of work are also contributing factors. Therefore the main effort to protect workers from WMSDs should focus on avoiding repetitive patterns of work through job design which may include mechanization, job rotation, job enlargement and enrichment or teamwork. Where elimination of the repetitive patterns of work is not possible or practical, prevention strategies involving workplace layout, tool and equipment design, and work practices should be considered.

    How can Levitt-Safety Help?

    From ergonomic product solutions to consulting and assessing your workspace, we can help you reduce the risk of musculoskeletal disorders in your workplace.

    We also offer a range of instructor-led courses designed to improve your office ergonomics and promote safe movement by your employees, including:

    Contact us today for more information.


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